Does 97% of the scientists agree that climate change comes from humans?

Today Nieuwsuur published a number of facts about the climate debate. It refers, among other things, to research showing that 97% of scientists agree that climate change is caused by humans.

According to some critics, this figure is incorrect. That is how Thierry Baudet refers in one Tweet to an article that was previously published on Forbes in which a study of the consensus among scientists is disputed.

How does this work exactly?

The article Baudet refers to criticizes an investigation by Australian researcher John Cook. Cook researched the theme with eight other colleagues in 2013 by viewing 11,944 articles in peer-reviewed journals (ie with a quality test by fellow scientists) in which the terms 'climate change' or 'global warming' were summarized in the summary. (global climate change or global warming). He wanted to see if you could take a position on it about the human influence on the climate.

Cook and his colleagues found that about 8,000 of the aforementioned studies did not take an explicit position on whether climate warming is caused by humans; Of the remaining 4,000 studies, 97% say that climate warming comes from humans.

According to climate scientist Bart Verheggen, who did research on this theme in the Netherlands, it is not surprising that many articles do not take an explicit position on the influence of humans on climate. According to Verheggen, those studies are simply not about the influence of people on the climate. “If you look at another field, such as biology, very few scientists explicitly say in their research that they believe in evolutionary theory. That doesn't mean they don't believe in it, they just investigate something else.”

Fact check NRC Handelsblad

Moreover, the 97% mentioned is not only reflected in Cook's research, but also in various other scientific studies. The variety of studies also shows that the degree of agreement is stronger among groups with more relevant expertise. For example, the consensus is higher among publishing climate scientists than among earth scientists in general.

Baudet is not the first Dutch politician to dispute Cook's conclusions. Earlier, PVV leader Geert Wilders said in a debate that “two-thirds of climate scientists have no position on CO2 harmfulness.” NRC Handelsblad conducted a fact check on this statement by Wilders.

The NRC writes: “According to Wilders, Cook concludes that one third (32.6 percent) of all scientists endorse human influence on the climate and that two thirds do not take a position. But that is not at all what Cook and his colleagues write. They investigated whether they could take such a position from the summary. “

And: “A scientist, for example, researching what the temperature rise in the Arctic means for polar bears, can be very convinced of the human influence on the climate, without naming it. That's not strange at all, Cook writes in a response by email: “You don't expect modern astronomers to explain in their articles that the earth revolves around the sun.”

Sinking of the “Great America”: 45 containers of hazardous materials and 2,200 tons of heavy fuel oil

The Italian ship “Grande America”, which sank Tuesday afternoon 333 km west of La Rochelle, was carrying “365 containers, 45 listed as containing hazardous materials” and 2,200 tons of heavy fuel oil in its bunkers, announced Wednesday the Maritime Prefect of the Atlantic.

“At present the potential risk of pollution is mainly constituted by the 2,200 tons of heavy fuel oil that are inside the building,” explained at a press conference in Brest the maritime prefect Jean-Louis Lozier.

“With westerly winds varying from west-southwest to west-northwest, the impacted area (by heavy fuel oil, ed) would be the facade between the Charente-Maritime and the Gironde in several days”, he estimated, assuring however that for the moment no pollution had been detected.

“The Great America was carrying decked containers and vehicles in its garage bridges,” said Vice Admiral Lozier.

“The shipowner's data lists 365 containers, 45 of which are listed as containing dangerous goods and a little over 2,000.Other than this cargo, the ship's bunkers contain about 2,200 tonnes of heavy fuel oil, which was used as fuel. navigation to the ship, “he said.

The prefect also said that the shipowner, the company Grimaldi, had been put on notice to “end the danger for navigation and the marine environment represented by containers and other elements adrift” and “treat any maritime pollution “.

The “Grande America”, a 214-meter hybrid ship between a ro-ro and a container ship, was coming from Hamburg (Germany) and was due to go to Casablanca (Morocco) when a fire broke out. on board Sunday night.

The building was about 263 kilometers southwest of Penmarc'h Point in Brittany. The 27 passengers were evacuated in the night from Sunday to Monday but the fire could not be controlled and the ship sank Tuesday at 15:26 to 333 km from La Rochelle.

Brexit: So the press judges Theresa Mays voting disaster

Idiots in the British House of Commons, the end of patience, averting chaos: The No of the British Parliament to the revised Brexit deal of Prime Minister Theresa May triggers many commentators shakes their heads and worries about the future – but also planning games, how it could go on. Read the press releases on the voting disaster at a glance here:

“Telegraph” (United Kingdom): “And if the UK now inevitably demands more time for the Brexit process, Brexit advocates hope that one in the EU27, with its objection, will bring everything to a standstill, no matter how it turns out, he (the Brexit process) will be at the mercy of the whims of the EU. “

“Financial Times” (Great Britain)“Avoiding chaos must now be a priority – a chaos in Parliament that could be exploited by extreme left and right forces, and the chaos of a disorderly exit from the EU – MEPs need to stabilize the political situation and create room for the To reconsider Brexit. “

“Times” (United Kingdom): “Any extension of the deadline would have to be used to pursue a different strategy, and yet the prime minister has repeatedly argued against other alternatives, one of which would be to better prepare for a Brexit without agreements and thus minimize costs. voting voters over their deal in a referendum, however unwanted that may be, and both would require an extension of more than two months, casting doubt on whether the government can hold out. “

Independent (United Kingdom): “In fact, a longer period would be needed to hold a second EU referendum or to rewrite Brexit for a new agreement, which will eventually be put to the British people for vote, if that means for another 21 months in the EU stay, as some sources suggest in Brussels, then the well-used time and always better than a hasty exit. “

“Scotsman” (Scotland): “Of course the UK is now fed up with idiots in the House of Commons who are seriously considering an unregulated withdrawal, and it may seem unlikely that MPs will support it, but support is still big enough that Theresa May thinks it's necessary. to suspend the group pressure for their deputies. “

“Irish Times” (Ireland): “The fact that the DUP supports Brexit in the first place is inexplicable, and so far it has not been able to propose a credible solution to the Irish border issue, and the North would be hit hard by a no-deal Brexit.”

“The Standard” (Austria): “All that is needed now is to avert the chaos, which will require an extension of the negotiating phase and the EU would be pleased to continue to stand by the British on Monday in Strasbourg.”

“Tages-Anzeiger” (Switzerland): “The Brexit is a disaster with an announcement anyway – a project of English nationalists fueled by lies and funds from opaque sources – the Brexiteers pretended to lead the country back to a supposedly glorious past – the British are not alone in this dream, but nowhere this dream so poisoned the climate, divided the population and disavowed a political class. “

“De Standaard” (Belgium): “The patience with the indecisive British is at an end, scenarios for a new referendum do not provide a solution, and any day that this grueling dispute lasts longer will weigh on future relations between the EU and its former Member State.”

“Diena” (Latvia): “For British politics, this week promises to be one of the most dramatic of recent decades – a number of important votes in parliament will be crucial to the country's future.”

“Washington Post” (USA): “For the besieged prime minister and other leaders, the key challenge in an election or further parliamentary debates is to overcome the demagogy of the right-wing Conservative and Mr. Corbyn's leftists, who, against all evidence, continue to say that Britain separates cleanly from the continent and at the same time its economic strength and the fragile peace in Northern Ireland, which depends on an open border with the Republic of Ireland, and the refusal of conservative ideologues and leftist opportunists to abandon these untenable positions accounts for much of what has been going on in British politics over the past few years went wrong. “

“New York Times” (USA): “But if the deal can not go through Parliament, and if no side is ready to jump off the cliff without a deal, then the only remaining option is to put the deadline back and keep trying, even if it's more troubling Waiting means. “

Wall Street Journal (USA): “An agreement – either by Mrs. May or someone else's – would have been the best Brexit solution, but if no politician can get parliamentary or popular support, it would be the voters' best way at this late stage to give the freedom of Europe for which they have voted. “

Andy Serkis parodies Theresa May as Gollum

Despair and political crisis in the United Kingdom

As already expected, the British House of Commons has voted away the adjusted brexit deal from Prime Minister Theresa May. With 391 votes against and 242 votes in favor, the new version of the agreements that May made with the European Commission about the British departure was also referred to the waste basket.

Tomorrow the House of Commons will vote on whether or not to exclude a 'no deal', the situation in which the UK leaves the EU without agreements. The House of Commons is expected to vote in large majority against a no deal scenario. In that case, a vote will be taken on Thursday about a possible delay in the moment the UK leaves the EU.

We are reporting tonight with, among others, our correspondents Tim de Wit in London and Sander van Hoorn in Brussels. We also speak with Rem Korteweg of the Clingendael Institute and the Northern Irish politician David Kerr.

Justice opposes land development to establish Europacity complex

Will the mega-complex Europacity project be born? Justice has again pronounced Tuesday against the urbanization of the vast agricultural area north of Paris where was to set up this park of shops and leisure, a setback that does not undermine the “trust” of its promoter.

The Administrative Court of Pontoise has annulled the local urban plan (PLU) approved by the council of Gonesse (Val-d'Oise) on September 25, 2017. He felt that opening the way to the urbanization of 248 hectares agricultural land constituted a “manifest error of appreciation”.

The mayor (PS) of this municipality of Val-d'Oise, Jean-Pierre Blazy, immediately announced his intention to appeal this decision which brings a new stop to the urbanization project of this sector stuck between the Roissy and Bourget airports.

In addition to Europacity, a shopping and leisure park spread over 80 hectares, the project provides for the creation of a Grand Paris Express station and a business center in the so-called “Gonesse Triangle” area.

“This urbanization is particularly fertile land, while the expected benefits, particularly in terms of job creation, invoked by the town of Gonesse, are not established,” said the court in a statement.

The court was seized by opponents of the Europacity project: environmental protection associations but also traders, including the operator of the nearby Aeroville shopping center, the world giant Unibail-Rodamco-Westfield (URW).

In this deprived sector of the Paris region, the Europacity project – combining commercial space (230,000 m²), cultural space (50,000 m²) and leisure park (150,000 m²) – has been conceived as a tourist attraction of international stature capable of draining 31 millions of visitors (free and paid) per year.

Cost of the operation: 3.1 billion euros, the largest private investment in France since the construction of Disneyland Paris in 1992.

The project is led by Ceetrus, real estate subsidiary of the Auchan group, and the Chinese conglomerate Wanda.

“The administrative procedures of our country are part of a long time and we respect them”, reacted the promoter to the AFP. “This long time has been taken into account (…) and we are confident in our ability to carry out this project which is supported by the State,” he added.

“We are working together with the public authorities and the developer (public Grand Paris Aménagement) to make Europacity an innovative, sustainable, virtuous project, and pilot from an environmental, social and programmatic point of view,” he said. -he assures.

– “Old world” –

For years, the project oscillates between setbacks and green lights.

The promoters hoped to open in 2024 when Paris will host the Olympics. They had to swallow this ambition after the postponement to 2027 of the construction of the station.

In March 2018, already, the Pontoise Administrative Court had annulled the prefectural decree creating the concerted development zone (ZAC) of the Gonesse Triangle.

The state appealed this decision. In parallel, the development project was declared of public utility by the prefect of Val-d'Oise in December.

In its decision consulted by AFP, the administrative court also considered that the municipality of Gonesse should have presented a “serious alternative to a project likely to significantly affect the local and regional environment”.

By having the PLU approved, the Mayor had exceeded the unfavorable opinion given by the Hearing Commissioner following the public inquiry. The latter considered the project “not compatible with the notion of sustainable development”.

In a statement, Blazy said he “anticipated these legal twists and turns” and argues that a “balanced approach is needed between environmental protection and economic and social development.”

In the opposite camp, the collective of traders salutes a “historic decision” which rewards “their tenacity to fight against a project coming from the old world”.

The historical opponent of the project, the Collective for the Triangle of Gonesse, remains cautious: “The rejection of EuropaCity is therefore general and the cancellation of the PLU provides an additional reason to hope. not won. “

He is now waiting for a decision at the top of the state to put an end to the urbanization of these lands.

Gafa tax: Washington plans to seize WTO

The United States plans to seize the World Trade Organization (WTO) taxes in their eyes “discriminatory” that France and other European countries want to impose on internet giants like Facebook and Google, said Tuesday at Paris an American leader. “In our government, some are investigating whether this discriminatory impact would give us the right (to challenge) under trade agreements and WTO treaties,” said Chip Harper, head of the Treasury and US delegate for international tax discussions.

“We believe that the entire theoretical basis for taxes on digital services is poorly designed and that the result is highly discriminatory against US-based multinationals,” Chip Harter told reporters, including AFP. on the eve of a two-day meeting in Paris at the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

The OECD is spearheading negotiations to forge a new global deal on the taxation of technology and digital giants, who often declare their incomes in low-tax countries, depriving other countries of billions of dollars in revenues. income. But this recasting is expected at the earliest next year, pushing France, the United Kingdom, Spain, Austria and Italy to adopt their own version of a “tax on digital services” from this year, called Gafa Tax (acronym for Google, Amazon, Facebook and Apple).

France “is a free and sovereign state that decides on its taxation and who decides freely and sovereignly,” said Tuesday the French Minister of Finance, Bruno Le Maire, reacting to the US threats on Gafa tax. Asked about the US threats to seize the WTO against Gafa taxes, the Mayor said in Brussels that “it did not question the bill that will be studied from April 4 at the National Assembly.” .

Failure within 28

The 28 EU countries have formally suspended Tuesday the project of a European tax on the digital giants because of the opposition of four of them. The 28 finance ministers, meeting in Brussels, have sent the ball back to the OECD, where talks are continuing to reach an agreement on an international tax on digital giants by 2020.

“In the event that by the end of 2020, it appears that the agreement at the OECD level is taking longer, the Council – that is to say the 28 ministers of the EU– could, if necessary, return to the discussion on a European approach, “said Romanian Finance Minister Eugen Orlando Teodorovici, after a meeting of the 28.

As expected, Ireland, Sweden, Denmark and Finland on Tuesday rejected this initiative of European legislation, which leads to block the project because in tax matters, unanimity is needed within the Union to achieve a deal. “I'm sorry we could not get along today.” I agree with Bruno (The Mayor, French Finance Minister), it's a missed opportunity, “said the European Commissioner for Economic Affairs Pierre Moscovici, after the meeting of the 28 ministers.

This failure among the 28 was expected and had pushed France to present on March 6 last its own project of tax on the digital giants. Nevertheless, the European project is not totally dead, as Mr Moscovici also stressed: “In 2020, if we have not managed to reach an international agreement, we must continue to move forward. not intend to withdraw his project from the table, it is not the end, it is not dead.

(With AFP)

Excluded from Offices: Catholic Church: Theologians call for equal rights

In the discussion about the role of women, women's associations and theologians see the church on the move. The local church is under pressure to face the discussion about more participation and influence of women in the church, says theologian Dorothea Sattler from Münster.

“My impression is that due to the many initiatives, the bishops are well aware that you have to deal with the question at least argumentatively and not just pronounce prohibitions.”

Today, Osnabrück Bishop Franz-Josef Bode wants to present a study on women in church leadership positions at the Episcopal Conference. At the beginning of the conference, the chairman, the Munich cardinal Reinhard Marx, said that in the dioceses there was a lot of work to do to promote women. That is not a self-runner. The cooperation of men and women is doing a good thing.

For many women and theologians, this announcement of the bishops should not be enough. For example, the Catholic German Women's Federation (KDFB) and the Catholic Women's Association of Germany demand a gender-equitable church. Also the church folk movement “We are church” demands a clear confession of the bishops to a diaconate of the woman. This would also be consecrated to women, which has not been permitted in church law in the Catholic Church so far.

From the theological point of view, there is no argument to deny women access to consecration, said the Tübingen Catholic theologian Johanna Rahner. “The only real reason I know is the reference to tradition, because we have not had it yet.” But that was a very weak argument, especially as the tradition of the church was not so clear. In the Catholic dioceses something had to change enormously so that the principle applied there as well: where decisions are made, women must also be involved equivalently, said Rahner. She hopes for a corresponding majority vote of the bishops.

Ultimately, only the pope can decide on a women's diaconate. The German Bishops' Conference could give a strong signal that she supports this diaconate, says theologian Margit Eckholt from the University of Osnabrück. Given the pastoral situation in Germany, the Episcopal Conference should lead the way and give such a signal. “The time is more than ripe for this in Germany.”

The endangered landscape: the resistance to solar parks is growing

The Netherlands is going green. After windmills, more and more solar parks are now appearing in the landscape. Especially in the rural regions, such as the north of the country. But resistance is also growing there.

Arable farmer Jan Reinier de Jong is now also developing complete solar parks. They yield more than seed potatoes. “I think it's nice, I think it's a bit of progress, see that we keep up with the times.”

One of those solar parks is planned on the outskirts of Borger in Drenthe. Local residents have revolted. An action committee has even been set up, working together with residents of neighboring municipalities, where solar parks are also planned. “You get a bit angry because you already have the windmills at your door,” says Keimpe van der Kooij. He points to a map to show how his home town of Buinerveen is, as it were, enclosed by windmills and a solar park.

Bercy is looking for a way out of the diesel crisis

Elected representatives, union representatives and stakeholders in the automotive industry met Monday in Bercy to try to prepare for the future of the sector, threatened by the diesel crisis and the transition to electric and autonomous vehicles.

In particular, the government wants to develop a “concerted plan” to accompany the continued drop in sales of diesel cars. The share of these engines has dropped by half in five years, challenging many companies and threatening thousands of jobs in the country.

“We must not deny that the decline of diesel in France has consequences for investments in our territories” and on employment in France, said Luc Chatel, president of the Automotive Platform, which represents the sector, at the exit Of the reunion.

According to him, “the automotive industry is facing a restructuring that it has never known in its history”, so it is “very important that the manufacturers are reunited with the State, with local authorities, with representatives of to harmonize their policies and make sure that we take the right turns and cushion the shock when there are difficulties. “

– “General mobilization” –

In 2013, 67% of cars registered in France were equipped with diesel engines, compared with only 35% in recent months. The decline has reached the same proportions on a European scale.

These engines, which French manufacturers had made a specialty, suffer the backlash of “dieselgate”, the case of Volkswagen engine rigged in 2015. They are also more and more pinned for their emissions of particles and particles. nitrogen oxides. Many cities, especially in Germany, have begun to restrict access to these vehicles.

The Minister of Economy Bruno Le Maire called for “the general mobilization to support developments in the automotive sector,” in a statement issued after the meeting.

A “precise mapping of industrial sites threatened by the evolution of engines” will emerge, as will a scientific study on carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions “under real conditions of recent vehicles, both diesel and diesel. essence, “according to the document.

Bercy is also proposing, in agreement with certain unions, to revise the classification of vehicles to make eligible for the Crit'Air 1 sticker diesel vehicles that meet the criteria, while they were previously excluded ex officio. The highest ranking diesel vehicles (Euro 5 and 6 standards) are now receiving a category 2 sticker.

This position seems to have consensus within the government. With Bercy, “we agree on one thing we could call technological neutrality, that is to say that we look at the application of standards and we do not look at whether it is such technology or another, “assured Environment Minister François de Rugy on BFMTV / RMC.

– Technological rupture –

“No one around the table is contesting or hindering the ecological transition, the climate change,” said for its part the president of Hauts-de-France, Xavier Bertrand. “The only thing is: do we decide to go faster than music and thus endanger tens of thousands of jobs that are still in the diesel industry, or are we marry both? “

For his part, the president of Nouvelle-Aquitaine Alain Rousset evoked “a considerable effort to make long-term training”. The speech of the presidents of regions “was to say: be careful, do not miss a technological break with hydrogen and electricity.Do not do as between the Minitel and the computer.

This meeting allowed to make “a big inventory of places.The figures were put on the table, everyone is put before his responsibilities,” said Gabriel Artero of the CFE-CGC. “We run after the time for the automotive industry in general and especially for sites dependent on diesel”, like the Bosch factory in Rodez.

A new meeting of the same type “will be organized within three months,” said Bercy.

Popular Chancellor: Two thirds of the citizens against Merkel's premature resignation

Two-thirds of Germans reject Chancellor Angela Merkel's premature resignation and wish that the 64-year-old ruled in the fall of 2021 until the end of the legislature.

According to the RTL / n-tv Trend Barometer published on Monday, this is the wish of two-thirds of eligible voters (67 percent). Only 29 percent of respondents want Merkel to leave prematurely. Thus, the desire to retain her as Chancellor has increased by twelve percentage points since February 2018.

The discussion about a coalition break was triggered last week by individual SPD politicians. They had threatened to end the government if the Union tried to replace the Chancellor with CDU chief Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer before the end of the legislature.

If Merkel resigned before the end of the term, according to the poll, 56 percent would be for new elections. 17 percent would favor a coalition of the Union, FDP and Greens, 12 percent would prefer a continuation of the grand coalition and 8 percent plead for a minority government of the CDU, CSU and Greens.

Should Merkel give up the chancellery earlier, 39 percent of voters would be for Kramp-Karrenbauer, 28 percent for Friedrich Merz and 33 percent for neither of them as successors from the CDU ranks.

Forsa CEO Manfred Güllner told the media group RTL: “Unlike in 1998, when many wished that Kohl was no longer chancellor, in 2019 there is no sign of a similar 'Merkel twilight'. Quite the contrary: in view of the crisis-ridden developments in the world today, the majority of Germans see no alternative to Merkel.